Primary Visual Cortex

From the primary visual cortex visual information is spread to more than thirty cortical areas for specific 'higher' visual functions. There are two main directions of the flow of visual information, toward the parietal lobe as the dorsal stream and toward the inferotemporal lobe as the ventral stream. 

Within the ventral stream are recognition functions, color perception, object background perception, whereas within the dorsal stream are functions like eye-hand coordination and orientation in space, both egocentric and allocentric space.

The visual system is a system of parallel pathways: In the eyes there are two sensory systems, cone cells for daylight vision and rod cells for twilight vision. 
In the optic nerves and visual pathways there are several different types of nerve fibres, of which the magnocellular and the parvocellular pathway are the most important. Visual information reaches cortical and subcortical visual functions via the retinocalcarine pathway or via the tectal pathway. From the primary visual cortex information flows either toward the parietal lobe as the dorsal stream or toward the temporal lobe as the ventral stream. 

In an infant and a young child, visual impairment often delays all areas of development if early intervention does not take place. Among the areas of development that are the most important during the first year are:

  • communication and interaction
  • motor functions
  • development of spatial concepts
  • orientation in space, egocentric and allocentric
  • development of object permanence and
  • development of language

Later on development of social skills and self image is related to how peers and adults respond to the behaviors caused by the visual impairement. Many visually impaired children and teenagers experience communication and interaction as their most limited functional areas that therefore should receive intervention at an early age.

Improvement Starts Here

With over 25 years of proven success, you can trust Advanced Vision Therapy Center to provide the care you need.

Our Clinical Director is Idaho's only residency trained optometrist in vision therapy and neuro-optometry and is a Fellow of the American Academy of Optometry.  His residency at University of California, Berkeley means he has the expertise and experience to treat even the most complex cases.

Read what our patients have to say.

Blog
  At Advanced Vision Therapy Center our results speak for themselves. Jonah, however, wanted to share his story with you. We invite you to watch this short video to learn more about Jonah's experience and success.   ... Read More
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  Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a term used within the medical community to describe an injury to the brain which is not hereditary, congenital or degenerative. Traumatic Brain Injury can be result from a blow to the head, whiplash, seizure disorders, tumors, stroke, toxic exposure, or infectious diseases to name a few. The incidence of prevalence of brain injury outnumbers breast cancer, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis and HIV/AIDs combined.   ... Read More
  Many people have heard of vision therapy, but don't know a lot about it. As with any type of therapy, the effectiveness of the program is dependent upon several factors. It is advisable to ask questions and do your homework. Vision therapy programs vary greatly from provider to provider.   ... Read More
  Everyday in our schools students are presented with information that they are required to look at, interpret, and process that information. For years it was believed that the eyes had nothing to do with learning. That is definitely not the case. Did you know it is estimated that 80% of what we learn is through visual information?     ... Read More
  Convergence Insufficiency (CI) is a common eye-teaming problem which occurs when the eyes are unable to maintain the ocular posture necessary for reading or near tasks. Convergence Insufficiency results from misalignment of the eyes when focusing on up close, such as when reading. The eyes have a strong tendency to drift outward when reading or doing close up work. The exact cause is unknown.    ... Read More
  After this abnormally tedious Boise winter, we are all ready to get outside and play in the sun! Hold on though, before you rush outside, have you taken the necessary precautions to protect yourself for ultraviolet rays? There are three types of ultraviolet rays, these wavelengths are not visible to the human eye and are shorter than violet wavelengths of light.    ... Read More
  Whether you are playing sports as a hobby or competitively there is a lot to consider. Are you using proper form? Is your equipment up to date? Are you warmed up? Are you wearing the appropriate safety gear? Is your opponent looking bigger and stronger than last time? Seriously, did he grow six inches? Whatever your thought process or preparation is you may be missing a key step. Are you wearing your protective eye-wear?   ... Read More
  Eye tracking, also referred to as visual tracking, is the ability of one's eyes to ?track? from left to right in an efficient manner, and ?follow? the movement of objects. Eye movements should be smooth and consistent, with the ability to be completed quickly.    ... Read More
  As children with undetected vision problems continue year after year, frustration with academic activities can be observed in behavior.  ... Read More
Contact Us

7960 W. Rifleman Street, #155
Boise , Idaho , 83704 USA
Phone:  208-377-1310
Fax:  208-321-1952